THE HOMEOPATHIC HISTORY OF NORWAY


In the beginning
There have been people practicing with homeopathic remedies since 1880 in Norway. What kind of therapy they offered is not certain, but nevertheless homeopathy appeared in the vocabulary at the end of 19th century. The first book written in Norwegian was published in 1893 and was written by O.M.Ohm with the title ''Praktisk Homøopatisk legehåndbok for hvermand''. Ohm practiced homeopathy in Bergen from about 1887-1900. Before his career as a homeopath he was a captain and sailed among other places to South-America.

After the First World War
Olav Farstad founded Bergen Homøopatiske Forening in 1928. This was a patient support group and had several hundred members.
In 1929 a newspaper on the west coast of Norway wrote about the natural doctor who has caused the death of a young girl, but a jury found him not guilty. This was a dedicated homeopath whom practised what was called Hahnemannian homeopathy (1).
Norges Homøopatforening was founded in 1930 and those who participated on that special occasion were Høivåg, Einar Larsen, Idar Tindvik, all three from Trondheim. Ivar Ivarsson Fosse (Hundorp), Edward Liebeck (Tromsø), Henry Braun (Narvik), Mathias Milde (Drammen) and Olav Farstad (Bergen) also took part in these historic days of 7th and 8th of August.

After the Second World War
During the Second World War there was little if any activity regarding to organization of homeopaths. In 1939 there were seven members in Norske Homøopaters Riksforbund, which was founded in 1930(see above). But in 1959 there were only five members. Rolf Auster,Volle, Siegfried Waage, Wdm. Elliassen, Kaare Groven and Ansar Berg were names that will be remembered. There were several men mentioned but only three women, two from the Stavanger area and one from Steinkjer (2).
Robert Scott-Nilsen started as a homeopath at a fulltime practise after several trips to London during which he studied at the Royal Homoeopathic Hospital (2).
In 1951 Norsk Homøopatisk Pasientforening was founded. This support-organization won in 1966 a very important trial, which ensured that all remedies were available and no further restrictions according to the '' law of quackery'' were fulfilled.
They are still fighting for the rights for patients, although most of the people now in charge, are homeopaths themselves.
Trondheim was one of the most dedicated cities to homeopathy. Homeopaths like Einar Larsen and Kaare Groven were among the foremost names. In the 70´s a lady named Odny Iversen became a recommended homeopath.

The end of the last century
In 1979-1980 there were suddenly two organizations for homeopaths in Norway. Svenska Homøopaters Riksforbund (from the school Arcanum, Gothenburg) and Norske Homøopaters Riksforbund (Norsk Akademi for Naturmedisin started this organization) very quickly united in a "marriage" in 1982 under the name Norske Homøopaters Landsforbund. The education at that time was both according to the laws of similium and complexes. Iris diagnosis, heberal medicine, and reflexology were also taught.
Until 1987 there was only one school teaching homeopathy in Norway. Arcanum and NAN educated the almost every homeopath in Norway prior to1987. NAN was under the administration of Bjørn Olav Røssberg and Jens Lunden.
Leif Ims and Øyvind Hafslund started Skandinavisk Institutt for Klassisk Homeopati. Both have been students under Vithoulkas and soon their classes became a permanent offer to dedicated students in Norway. They claim to teach classical homeopathy, and poly-pharmacy is not being taught.
In 1997 there are 4 organizations for homeopaths or people giving homeopathic remedies in Norway. Nordiska Homeopaters Förbund(1997,7 members), Norges Landsforbund av Homøopraktikere(1993,135 members), Norske Naturterapeuters Hovedorganisasjon(1994, unknown number of members)  and Norske Homeopaters Landsforbund(1930,385 members)
The Norwegian government, health and social department, completed their report on alternative medicine in December 1998, and concluded that homeopathy can be considered as an effective therapy (in Norwegian: mulig effektiv)(3).
In 2001 there are 5 organizations for homeopaths.
Klassiske Homøopaters Forening was founded 10th of March in Trondheim by Øyvind Schjelderup.

Current national situation
i) Both homeopaths and medical trained homeopaths practise side by side in Norway at the moment. Homeopaths are regulated but the Kvakksalverloven (The law of quackery) from 1936, which give clear instruction not to treat cancer, thyrotoxicosis and venereal diseases.
Medical doctors on the other hand are regulated by the legeloven, and are not allowed to practise therapies not documented to be effective and harmless.

ii) There are 5 organizations representing homeopaths, or claim to do so in Norway (1).
These are Nordiska Homeopaters Förbund (1997,7 members), Norges Landsforbund av Homøopraktikere (1993,135 members), Norske Naturterapeuters Hovedorganisasjon (1994, Heilpraktiere mostly, unknown number), Norske Homeopaters Landsforbund (1930, 385members) and finally Klassiske Homøopaters Forening (1999, 6 members). There is no special organization for medical homeopaths only.

Norske Naturterapeuters Hovedorganisasjon (NHH)
Drammensveien 16
0255 Oslo
Web-adress: www.nhh.no
Tlf.: 22 55 86 10

Norske Homeopaters Landsforbund (NHL)
Storgata 39
0182 Oslo
Tlf.: 22 11 12 99
E-mail: nhl@c2i.net


Klassiske Homøopters Forening (KHF)
Arildsgate 3
7018 Trondheim
Tlf.: 73 53 00 76
E-mail: oeschjel@frisurf.no
Web-address: www.geocities.com/klassiskhomeopati

The rest of the addresses are not available.

iii) Three schools in Norway offer homeopathic education, and all of them are private schools.

Nordisk Høgskole for Homøopati(NHH)
Filipstadveien 5
0250 Oslo
Tlf.: 22 44 04 49


Norsk Akademi for Naturmedisin(NAN)
Heggelibakken 2
0375 Oslo
Tlf.: 22 49 51 50


Skandinavisk Institutt for Klassisk Homeopati(SIKH)
Sognsveien 75A
0855 Oslo
Tlf.: 22 23 31 90

The Homeopathic schools are ranging from pure classical (SIKH) to a school, which offer lectures in reflexology and heberal medicine intergrated in the homeopathic education (NAN).
According to their brochures they all offer both medical and homeopathic lectures. All three schools offer clinical training in homeopathy. When we subtract, divide and calculate we figure out following hours in homeopathic training:
NHH 750 hours (One hour= 60 minutes)
NAN 400 hours
SIKH 850 hours.

All schools teach materia medica (small and better known remedies) and homeopathic philosophy- included Organon and Chronic Diseases. The differences are mainly due to the teachers and how classical they work in their own practice.

SIKH offers now in collaboration with London Royal homeopathic hospital a three-year course for medical doctors.

iv)
a) Norske Homeopaters Landsforbund publish quarterly Dynamis, which is a printed journal in to colours. The journal has few cases and theoretical stuff, but function as a link between the broad and members.
Norske Naturterapeuters Hovedorganisasjon publish Naturterapeuten four times a year with articles on different alternative therapies.

b) Norsk Homøopatisk Pasientforening publish quarterly a small pamphlet.

c) Klassiske Homøopaters Forening send quarterly out a newsletter to members.

d) Aude sapere Online is a home page, which have articles on homeopathy. Persons behind this group are really dedicated classical homeopaths. Their address is home.no.net/audeonl/.

v) There have been 2 studies published regarding homeopathy in Norway the last years (4)(5).
The university of Tromsø has this year been given the responsibility for Nasjonalt kompetansesenter for alternativ medisin (National Centre for Alternative Medicine). They are given 8 mill. n.kr over a period of 5 years. The coordinator of the research is Vinjar Fønnebø M.D..
There may bee more research done, which to us is unknown because it has not yet been published.

vi) Homeopathic remedies are free to buy by every person in Norway. You do not need a recipe from your homeopath to buy remedies at the pharmacy. The remedies are sold only in pharmacies, and there are no restrictions regarding remedies or potency.

vii) There are no manufacturers of homeopathic remedies in Norway, except those how may make their own remedies for private use. Remedies imported from Sweden, England, Germany and Belgium (Among other countries) by Norsk Medisinaldepot are sold by the pharmacies.

vii) The National Health Service have traditionally not been interested in homeopathy except from regulating homeopathic activity through the '' law of quackery''. Nowadays we can say that the situation have changed since the government has decided to establish National Centre for Alternative Medicine in Tromsø (see above).

ix) There are no homeopathic hospitals in Norway, only private centres for consultation.

x) There is one patient support group in Norway, called Norsk Homøopatisk Pasientforening. This support group was founded in 1951. At the moment practising homeopaths controls this group, and therefore we may say it has lost its function as a support group by users of homeopathy.


Norsk Homøopatisk Pasientforening
Postboks 412
N-7404 Trondheim
Tlf.: 73 52 23 07

xii) Homeopaths in Norway do not have to charge their patient for VAT, but like every private business homeopaths should pay tax from their profit. How much you have to pay depends on you expenses.

xiv) The general charge varies indeed among practising homeopaths. The charge can be 200 n.kr-800 n.kr for the first appointment, and from 50 n.kr-400 n.kr for the control. But nevertheless it is important to remember that the time spent are also very variable among those how claim themselves to be homeopaths.
According to the size of the organization the insurance will vary.
Members of KHF must pay 1600 n.kr for the insurance.



References:
1)Einar Larsen. Den homøopatiske huslæge, Eget forlag, Trondheim ,1951.
2)Wiens, Grethe. Homeopatiens historie i Norge, Dynamis nr 4. 1990 og nr.1, 1991.
3) Aarbakke Jarle et. al.. Alternativ medisin, NOU 21, 1998.
4) Løkken P et.al. Effect of homeopathy on pain and other events after acute trauma: placebo controlled trial with bilateral oral surgery. BMJ 1995; 310:330-34.
5) Tveiten D et. al. Effect of Arnica D30 on hard physical exercise, Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening 1991, 111:360-31.

Trondheim; 4th January 01
Øyvind Schjelderup

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