HISTORY OF NORWAY
There have been people practicing with homeopathic remedies since 1880
in Norway. What kind of therapy they offered is not certain, but nevertheless
homeopathy appeared in the vocabulary at the end of 19th century. The
first book written in Norwegian was published in 1893 and was written
by O.M.Ohm with the title ''Praktisk Homøopatisk legehåndbok for hvermand''.
Ohm practiced homeopathy in Bergen from about 1887-1900. Before his
career as a homeopath he was a captain and sailed among other places
After the First World War
Olav Farstad founded Bergen Homøopatiske Forening in 1928. This was
a patient support group and had several hundred members.
In 1929 a newspaper on the west coast of Norway wrote about the natural
doctor who has caused the death of a young girl, but a jury found him
not guilty. This was a dedicated homeopath whom practised what was called
Hahnemannian homeopathy (1).
Norges Homøopatforening was founded in 1930 and those who participated
on that special occasion were Høivåg, Einar Larsen, Idar Tindvik, all
three from Trondheim. Ivar Ivarsson Fosse (Hundorp), Edward Liebeck
(Tromsø), Henry Braun (Narvik), Mathias Milde (Drammen) and Olav Farstad
(Bergen) also took part in these historic days of 7th and 8th of August.
After the Second World War
During the Second World War there was little if any activity regarding
to organization of homeopaths. In 1939 there were seven members in Norske
Homøopaters Riksforbund, which was founded in 1930(see above). But in
1959 there were only five members. Rolf Auster,Volle, Siegfried Waage,
Wdm. Elliassen, Kaare Groven and Ansar Berg were names that will be
remembered. There were several men mentioned but only three women, two
from the Stavanger area and one from Steinkjer (2).
Robert Scott-Nilsen started as a homeopath at a fulltime practise after
several trips to London during which he studied at the Royal Homoeopathic
In 1951 Norsk Homøopatisk Pasientforening was founded. This support-organization
won in 1966 a very important trial, which ensured that all remedies
were available and no further restrictions according to the '' law of
quackery'' were fulfilled.
They are still fighting for the rights for patients, although most of
the people now in charge, are homeopaths themselves.
Trondheim was one of the most dedicated cities to homeopathy. Homeopaths
like Einar Larsen and Kaare Groven were among the foremost names. In
the 70´s a lady named Odny Iversen became a recommended homeopath.
The end of the last century
In 1979-1980 there were suddenly two organizations for homeopaths in
Norway. Svenska Homøopaters Riksforbund (from the school Arcanum, Gothenburg)
and Norske Homøopaters Riksforbund (Norsk Akademi for Naturmedisin started
this organization) very quickly united in a "marriage" in
1982 under the name Norske Homøopaters Landsforbund. The education at
that time was both according to the laws of similium and complexes.
Iris diagnosis, heberal medicine, and reflexology were also taught.
Until 1987 there was only one school teaching homeopathy in Norway.
Arcanum and NAN educated the almost every homeopath in Norway prior
to1987. NAN was under the administration of Bjørn Olav Røssberg and
Leif Ims and Øyvind Hafslund started Skandinavisk Institutt for Klassisk
Homeopati. Both have been students under Vithoulkas and soon their classes
became a permanent offer to dedicated students in Norway. They claim
to teach classical homeopathy, and poly-pharmacy is not being taught.
In 1997 there are 4 organizations for homeopaths or people giving homeopathic
remedies in Norway. Nordiska Homeopaters Förbund(1997,7 members), Norges
Landsforbund av Homøopraktikere(1993,135 members), Norske Naturterapeuters
Hovedorganisasjon(1994, unknown number of members) and Norske
Homeopaters Landsforbund(1930,385 members)
The Norwegian government, health and social department, completed their
report on alternative medicine in December 1998, and concluded that
homeopathy can be considered as an effective therapy (in Norwegian:
In 2001 there are 5 organizations for homeopaths.
Klassiske Homøopaters Forening was founded 10th of March in Trondheim
by Øyvind Schjelderup.
i) Both homeopaths and medical trained homeopaths practise side by side
in Norway at the moment. Homeopaths are regulated but the Kvakksalverloven
(The law of quackery) from 1936, which give clear instruction not to
treat cancer, thyrotoxicosis and venereal diseases.
Medical doctors on the other hand are regulated by the legeloven, and
are not allowed to practise therapies not documented to be effective
ii) There are 5 organizations representing homeopaths, or claim to do
so in Norway (1).
These are Nordiska Homeopaters Förbund (1997,7 members), Norges Landsforbund
av Homøopraktikere (1993,135 members), Norske Naturterapeuters Hovedorganisasjon
(1994, Heilpraktiere mostly, unknown number), Norske Homeopaters Landsforbund
(1930, 385members) and finally Klassiske Homøopaters Forening (1999,
6 members). There is no special organization for medical homeopaths
Norske Naturterapeuters Hovedorganisasjon (NHH)
Tlf.: 22 55 86 10
Norske Homeopaters Landsforbund (NHL)
Tlf.: 22 11 12 99
Klassiske Homøopters Forening (KHF)
Tlf.: 73 53 00 76
The rest of the addresses are not available.
iii) Three schools in Norway offer homeopathic education, and all of
them are private schools.
Nordisk Høgskole for Homøopati(NHH)
Tlf.: 22 44 04 49
Norsk Akademi for Naturmedisin(NAN)
Tlf.: 22 49 51 50
Skandinavisk Institutt for Klassisk Homeopati(SIKH)
Tlf.: 22 23 31 90
The Homeopathic schools are ranging from pure classical (SIKH) to a
school, which offer lectures in reflexology and heberal medicine intergrated
in the homeopathic education (NAN).
According to their brochures they all offer both medical and homeopathic
lectures. All three schools offer clinical training in homeopathy. When
we subtract, divide and calculate we figure out following hours in homeopathic
NHH 750 hours (One hour= 60 minutes)
NAN 400 hours
SIKH 850 hours.
All schools teach materia medica (small and better known remedies) and
homeopathic philosophy- included Organon and Chronic Diseases. The differences
are mainly due to the teachers and how classical they work in their
SIKH offers now in collaboration with London Royal homeopathic hospital
a three-year course for medical doctors.
a) Norske Homeopaters Landsforbund publish quarterly Dynamis, which
is a printed journal in to colours. The journal has few cases and theoretical
stuff, but function as a link between the broad and members.
Norske Naturterapeuters Hovedorganisasjon publish Naturterapeuten four
times a year with articles on different alternative therapies.
b) Norsk Homøopatisk Pasientforening publish quarterly a small pamphlet.
c) Klassiske Homøopaters Forening send quarterly out a newsletter to
d) Aude sapere Online is a home page, which have articles on homeopathy.
Persons behind this group are really dedicated classical homeopaths.
Their address is home.no.net/audeonl/.
v) There have been 2 studies published regarding homeopathy in Norway
the last years (4)(5).
The university of Tromsø has this year been given the responsibility
for Nasjonalt kompetansesenter for alternativ medisin (National Centre
for Alternative Medicine). They are given 8 mill. n.kr over a period
of 5 years. The coordinator of the research is Vinjar Fønnebø M.D..
There may bee more research done, which to us is unknown because it
has not yet been published.
vi) Homeopathic remedies are free to buy by every person in Norway.
You do not need a recipe from your homeopath to buy remedies at the
pharmacy. The remedies are sold only in pharmacies, and there are no
restrictions regarding remedies or potency.
vii) There are no manufacturers of homeopathic remedies in Norway, except
those how may make their own remedies for private use. Remedies imported
from Sweden, England, Germany and Belgium (Among other countries) by
Norsk Medisinaldepot are sold by the pharmacies.
vii) The National Health Service have traditionally not been interested
in homeopathy except from regulating homeopathic activity through the
'' law of quackery''. Nowadays we can say that the situation have changed
since the government has decided to establish National Centre for Alternative
Medicine in Tromsø (see above).
ix) There are no homeopathic hospitals in Norway, only private centres
x) There is one patient support group in Norway, called Norsk Homøopatisk
Pasientforening. This support group was founded in 1951. At the moment
practising homeopaths controls this group, and therefore we may say
it has lost its function as a support group by users of homeopathy.
Norsk Homøopatisk Pasientforening
Tlf.: 73 52 23 07
xii) Homeopaths in Norway do not have to charge their patient for VAT,
but like every private business homeopaths should pay tax from their
profit. How much you have to pay depends on you expenses.
xiv) The general charge varies indeed among practising homeopaths. The
charge can be 200 n.kr-800 n.kr for the first appointment, and from
50 n.kr-400 n.kr for the control. But nevertheless it is important to
remember that the time spent are also very variable among those how
claim themselves to be homeopaths.
According to the size of the organization the insurance will vary.
Members of KHF must pay 1600 n.kr for the insurance.
1)Einar Larsen. Den homøopatiske huslæge, Eget forlag, Trondheim ,1951.
2)Wiens, Grethe. Homeopatiens historie i Norge, Dynamis nr 4. 1990 og
3) Aarbakke Jarle et. al.. Alternativ medisin, NOU 21, 1998.
4) Løkken P et.al. Effect of homeopathy on pain and other events after
acute trauma: placebo controlled trial with bilateral oral surgery.
BMJ 1995; 310:330-34.
5) Tveiten D et. al. Effect of Arnica D30 on hard physical exercise,
Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening 1991, 111:360-31.
Trondheim; 4th January 01